Exclusive distribution agreements are essentially requirement agreements in which a seller undertakes to sell all or substantial part of its products or services to a particular buyer, or where a buyer similarly agrees to purchase all or part of its requirements for a product or service from a particular seller. Panelists generally agreed that this type of parasitism is one of the basic theories about the pro-competitive effects of exclusive trade: “The manufacturer invests in a product or reputation that attracts customers,” which entices customers to frequent a distributor, but “then the dealer says, by the way, I have a better deal for you, ” to customers attracted by the manufacturer`s investment. (83) As one panelist explained, transactions alone can `encourage suppliers to invest more time, effort and money in their distribution channels because.. they don`t have to worry about shared loyalties where they waste their efforts. (84) Indeed, exclusive distribution can help consumers by `encouraging people to make specific investments in the relationship`. (85) Stakeholders cited advertising to manufacturers(86), training of dealer staff(87), disclosure of trade secrets to retailers(88) and advertising investments(89) as examples of services that ultimately benefit consumers but may not be provided except for exclusive trade. Full line forcing is also known as one-time purchase, as it limits the buyer to buy and store only the product from a supplier, which is also considered a unique brand. A company is said to have engaged in a full forcing when it imposes the following conditions on the buyer: Since no Supreme Court decision on exclusive trade has been rendered since Brown Shoe, jurisprudence has developed before the courts of appeal. The courts of appeal interpreted Tampa Electric as abandoning the Court`s narrow emphasis on material significance in standard stations and thus taking into account a variety of competitive factors when assessing exclusive distribution. One of the problems in these cases is that the extent to which competitors are excluded from the market is only one factor in the analysis; Courts also take pro-competitive justifications into account when assessing the legality of the practice. Most exclusive contracts are advantageous because they promote marketing support for the manufacturer`s brand. By becoming an expert in a manufacturer`s products, the distributor is encouraged to specialize in promoting that manufacturer`s brand. This may include offering special services or amenities that cost money, such as .
B an attractive business, trained salespeople, long opening hours, product inventory or fast warranty service. But the cost of providing some of this equipment – which is offered to consumers before the product is sold and may not be recovered if the consumer leaves without buying anything – can be difficult to pass on to customers in the form of a higher retail price. .